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Tuesday, 13 September 2011

Formative & Summative Assessment



Summative Assessments 
This kind of assessments is a process of collecting data about what's students know and what they able to do. Some people recognize summative assessments only by standardized tests, but they are more important part in learning process. Here are some examples of summative assessments:
  • some quizzes
  • End-of-unit or chapter tests
  • End-of-term or semester exams
  • Scores that are used for accountability for schools and students (report card grades).

Formative Assessment
This is part of the instructional process which both teachers and students understands at a point when timely adjustments can be made. These adjustments help to ensure students achieve, targeted standards-based learning goals within a set of time. There are some distinct ways to distinguish them from summative assessments. Some of the instructional strategies that can be used formatively include the following:

  • Criteria and goal setting by creating clear expectations. In order to be successful, students need to understand and know the learning target/goal and the criteria for reaching it. Establishing and defining quality work together, asking students to participate in establishing norm behaviors for classroom culture, and determining what should be included in criteria for success are all examples of this strategy. Using student work, classroom tests, or exemplars of what is expected helps students understand where they are, where they need to be, and an effective process for getting there.

  • Observations go beyond walking around the room to see if students are on task or need clarification. Observations help teachers in gathering evidence of student learning to inform instructional planning. This evidence can be recorded and used as feedback for students about their learning.

  • Questioning strategies. Asking better questions allows an opportunity for deeper thinking and provides teachers with significant insight into the degree and depth of understanding. Questions of this nature engage students in classroom dialogue that both uncovers and expands learning. Helping students ask better questions is another aspect of this formative assessment strategy.

  • Self and peer assessment helps to create a learning community within a classroom. When students have been involved in criteria and goal setting, self-evaluation is a logical step in the learning process. With peer evaluation, students see each other as resources for understanding and will need each others.

  • Student record keeping helps students better understand their own learning as evidenced by their classroom work. This process of students keeping ongoing records of their work not only engages students, it also helps them, beyond a "grade," to see where they started and the progress they are making toward the learning goal.


..Thanks for reading..

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